Actual Problems of Psychology. Volume 11. Personology. Psychological support person. Issue 13 – 2015


Content of Issue

UDC 376.58:159.922.763

Volnova L.

Ph.D. of Psychology, Associate Professor, assistant professor of the Department of Industrial Psychology and Psychology of Management, Institute of Social Work and Management, Dragomanov National Pedagogical University, MP, Associate Professor Kiev.

Revealing of features of troublesome teen’s behavior as a basis for deviant behavior prevention

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The study goal is to identify the main features of troublesome teen’s behavior to optimize the process of deviant behavior prevention. Research objectives are to detect and investigate the main features of troublesome teen’s behavior and deviant behavior, to group them and to investigate the views of teachers, practitioners about the meaning of the signs. The article analyzes a series of psychological, pedagogical, legal and medical scientific, educational and methodical works related to troublesome teen’s behavior and deviant behavior of teenagers. Those features which are often referred by scientists as common among manifestations of troublesome teen’s behavior are emphasized by the author. They include: prevailing of negative qualities of character and signs in behavior; disorders in forming or insufficient development of qualities and properties of emotional-volitional sphere; narrow-mindedness or negative orientation of needs, inclinations and interests; disfigured moral and ethical knowledge; systematic violations of norms of communication and behavior; conflict relationships with adults and peers; resistance to ordinary pedagogical influence; learning difficulties; violation of psychical development. The results of questioning of teachers and psychologists about the role of these features in troublesome teen’s behavior are discussed. Three signs, which specialists pay most attention to, are defined. They are: systematic violation of norms of communication and behavior; narrow-mindedness or negative orientation of needs, inclinations and interests; disorders of psychical development.

Keywords: adolescents, deviant behavior, behavioral problems, features of troubled teen’s behavior, negative qualities of character, negative direction.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 6-14 (pdf)

UDC 159.98:159.92

Hladii H. I.

president of public organization Center of human development «Intellekt», postgraduate student, Institute of Social and Political Psychology, Ukraine, Kiev.

Fundamentals of the thought processes of deviant youth in modern Ukraine

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The problem low intelligence and underdevelopment of the thinking processes of youth who breaks the law has become an actual reality in our country. So, in 2012 the penitentiary service of Ukraine conducted a survey among young people who repeatedly commit crimes and return to prison. As it was found out, 19 % of the respondents believe that they are necessary return back, 15% dreams of living in their past, 43 percent admit that it is impossible be free and build a new life at the same time. And out of ten people who gained their freedom, eight people were back in penitentiaries. Such statistics show that the thinking patterns of deviant adolescents include the belief that people cannot overcome the complexity and challenges of freedom. This idea adds fear, uncertainty. Old thought, stimulate the activity of old, negative practical actions, beliefs, stereotypes; they are not replaced and continue to dictate the rules. The youth need to take constantly only positive information, to ask yourself the questions, «What can I do to change your life?», «How can I make my life better?» to break the old habits. Thinking work within crisis practices can start creating of a new system of values. New practices lead to new values, and new gained experience, skills help to create a new model of behavior. Thus, people can build their new future life. Process of restructuring of old system of thinking for new positive work of thoughts is of great importance at adaptation and a resocialization of problem youth. The revealed problem demands a new approach to a solution of the problem of low intelligence of asocial youth. There is a need to fill these adaptation programs with new social and psychological technologies and scientific development.

Keywords: intellect, thought, thought processes, problem young people, positive praxis’s.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(12): 15-21 (pdf)

UDC 159.923.2

Hrys A. M.

Ps.D., Head of the Laboratory of Psychology of Socially Maladjusted Juveniles, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology, NAPS of Ukraine, Kiev.

Psychological mechanisms of self-image functioning of persons with different types of character

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article discuses the psychological mechanisms of disruption of self-image functioning depending on a type of character. Content and procedural characteristics of manifestations of disharmony are presented by the example of symbiotic and psychopathic characters that are attributable for socially maladjusted minors. Possibility to apply the theories of characterological personality development in psychologist’s practice is revealed. The character structure that is most suitable to use as a psychological technique is described. It is found that leading character traits that are type specific (symbiotic, schizoid, psychopathic, etc.) are formed as a result of development of personal stereotypical reactions to frustrations of child’s instinctual needs in natural surroundings. Because of need frustration and blockade, taken decisions are firmly fixed and hardly to be changed. Pathogenic beliefs that are foundation and corresponding «solution scenario» involve usually the belief that blockade disabling and need acceptance will lead to a repetition of painful frustration and deprivation. Consequently, there is confusion as for self-identity; the main features of it are imposed externally, unhealthy, unnatural and incomplete. However, natural forms of child’s self-expression are remained underdeveloped and that incites internal conflicts. The article determines characterological disorders that hinder development of healthy, stable sense of own Self. Prospects of use of deep psychological mechanisms of self-image and character functioning for creation of psychological tools are outlined.

Key words: self-image, character, psychological mechanisms, socially maladjusted juveniles, self-identity, self-esteem, a sense of self.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 22-30 (pdf)

UDC 364.2:159.9.018

Danylchenko T. V.

Ph.D. of Psychology, Assistant Professor of the Department of General, Age and Social Psychology, Shevchenko National Pedagogical University in Chernihіv

Social and psychological training as means of subjective social well-being improvement

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article studies social and psychological training as a form of work aiming at subjective social well-being improvement. The concept is suggested and is being recently studied within the framework of the new scientific school, which is positive psychology. Social well-being is defined as integral psychosocial formation that reflects individual experience (perception and assessment) of social functioning. Different forms of work (counseling, psychological maintenance, and forming experiment), the purpose of which is to improve the subjective (emotional) well-being, are analyzed in the paper. The advantages of training in the aspect of motivation maintenance are presented. A variant of a three-stage social-psychological training is introduced. The first stage is focused on social reflection. The second stage aims at developing of positive thinking, memory, positive communication and life enjoyment skills. At the third stage, means and resources for changing of an actual situation (if it does not satisfy the participants) are searched for. The training main objective is to teach how to find internal resources for well-being experience, despite specific life situations. The training task is development of such psychological formations as social reflection, positive memory, communicative and social competence. Such skills as emotional self-control, time management, and positive social comparison are formed. Formation of a specific positive approach to personal life assessment and other people perception is emphasized. Approbation of the suggested program of the socio-psychological training is planned.

Keywords: subjective social well-being, socio-psychological training, positive psychology, reflection of social life, emotional self-regulation

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 31-40 (pdf)

UDC 159.922.27:159.922.73

Durkalevych I. V.

PhD in Psychological Science, Lecturer of Stanislaus Pigonia State Higher Vocational School in Krosno, Poland

Socio-cultural factor as agression determinant of adolescents from labour migrant families

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article is dedicated to aggression symptoms among adolescents who come from labour migrant families. The main factors that lead to aggression appearance are studied in this work. Special attention is paid to the concept of a family as one of the main socio-cultural factors. The theoretical base of the article is formed by the systematical approach to understanding of what family is and according to which the development and all emotional experience of teenagers should be looked upon from the prospective of family relations.

There are references to the research results of modern foreign scholars who study the issue of aggressive behaviour among adolescents from labour migrant families such as B. Walczak, W. Danilewicz, E. Dolata. In the article, there are presented short results of our own empiric studies conducted with the sample of 183 teenagers (92 girls and 91 boys) at the age of 14-17 who have been brought up in different types of families (full, temporarily incomplete (labour migrant parents), long-term incomplete (divorced parents) from western parts of Ukraine (Lviv region), the aim of which is to determine the influence of long-term parents` labour emigration on growing adolescents.

The results of our own investigation with the usage of qualitative and quantitative methods give us the reason to assume that long-term emigrational separation between parents and children lead to various emotional problems, such as aggression, among teenagers.

Keywords: labour emigration, aggression, family, adolescents.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 40-51 (pdf)

UDC 159.99:304

Diomina H. A.

Ph.D. Psychology, associate professor, Department of Industrial Psychology and Psychology of Management, Institute of Social Work and Management of Dragomanov National Pedagogical University, Kyiv

Communication skills of the future specialists of social sphere working with deviants

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article describes the concept of «communication skills», a structure of communication skills and multi-level characteristic of communication skills of students - future specialists of social sphere, who will work with deviants. The structure of the communicative abilities includes certain skills and specific personality traits that positively influence on interaction process: capacities to listen and understand others, to transfer and receive information, to perceive and evaluate a communicational situation, to predict its development, to express themselves; a gift to use feedback to respond; persuasion, tact, discipline, attentiveness, courtesy, empathy, sociability, creativity; a gift to be demanding not only to others but also to him/herself. We have identified and characterized 3 levels of students’ sociability: high, medium and low.

Using R. Cattell’s Personality Factor Questionnaire, we determined that a small number of students of the first academic year of the Institute of Social Work and Management of Dragomanov NPU have a high level of communicative skills, a medium level and a low level of communication skills are the most common (for both male and female).

Therefore, students with an average level of communicative abilities are able to form their thoughts clearly, but they lack of concision. They can select a proper style of communication. Although, they do not always provide emotional reactions to their partners, but they can quickly react to change their behavior. In addition, students try to take into account emotional states of their interlocutors but cannot overcome without difficulties psychological barriers during communication.

Keywords: social worker, communication, professional skills, communication skills, structure of communication skills, substantial characteristic of a level of communication skills, sociability.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 52-59 (pdf)

UDC 159.99:316.6

Krasilova Yu. M.

postgraduate student, Department of Social Work, Faculty of Psychology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv.

Features of motivational sphere of juvenile offenders

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article analyzes various approaches to determine the motives of crimes. It is proved that motives and motivation play one of the defining and leading roles in crime characterizing. The specificity of adolescence is discussed. Adolescence is one of the most difficult stages of human development, because transition from childhood to adulthood takes place during this period. Juvenile offenders have problems with self-determination, which is regarded as a motivational centre that defines their activities, behaviour and attitude to the world. Alternative types of punishment, including probation service, are analyzed. The features of motivational sphere of juvenile offenders that influence over committing crimes are revealed. The article defines how the features of juvenile offenders’ motivational sphere have an impact on the process of committing crimes. The typology of juvenile offenders in accordance with the characteristics of their motivational sphere is composed. The article presents conceptual approaches to psychological correction and motivational sphere in accordance with juvenile offenders’ types. Motivational sphere of juvenile offenders functions under influence of inadequate self-esteem, an external locus of control without forecasts and formed goal-setting functions; they have underdeveloped self-examination and reflection and motivation avoidance. Basin on the typology of juvenile offenders, the author proposes conceptual approaches to correct behaviour, including trainings, counselling, social support, changes in life situation.

Keywords: motivation; motivation of a crime; motive; juvenile offenders; alternative punishment.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 60-70 (pdf)

UDC 364-78:316.61

Lieskova L. F.

senior lector of the Department of Social Work, Chernihiv National University of Technology, Ukraine, Chernihiv

The issue of professional person′s socialization in the system of social work management

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: Social work as a professional activity is the interrelated system of values, theory and practice. Its mission is to provide an opportunity to develop human potential completely, to enrich own life and to prevent appearance of dysfunctions. The paper is devoted to the theoretical investigation of the concepts «socialization» and «professional socialization». Different meanings of the concept «socialization» are highlighted. It has been defined that socialization is a two-way process, under which a person not only adapts to society`s environment, to cultural elements and norms that are formed on the different levels of society`s life-support but also, because of his/her activeness, converts them onto own values, orientations and attitudes. Professional socialization is an entire part of the general process of socialization with which successful person`s inclusion into the process of work is formed and a high level of lifelong professional mobility is supported. Professional development of a social worker is as an organic unity of external and internal worlds of a person, objective (profession`s significance in the society, its legal and social status) and subjective (tendencies, possibilities, capabilities, valuable orientations, motivation willingness) factors, and continuous professional training is a tool, condition of that interaction, precondition to achieving of high persons` professionalism and high professional activities.

Keywords: socialization, professional socialization, adaptation, person, social worker, professional communities.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 71-79 (pdf)

UDC 159.922.73-053.6-056.49

Lytvynchuk L. M.

Ph.D. of Psychology, Senior Scientist, senior researcher of the Laboratory of Psychology of Socially Maladjusted Adolescents, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology, NAPS of Ukraine, Kyiv

Methods of music therapy as a method of adaptive ability improving for drug addicts

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article provides theoretical substantiation of the corrective influence of music on drug addicts. Inability to live in a modern, complex environment leads many people to various forms of behavioural disorders, which include not only offences, for example, but also excessive consumption of alcohol, drugs, smoking, suicide attempts, etc. We believe that music therapy along with art therapy, i.e. therapy by means of fine art, can be an effective method for treatment of neuroses, emotional, cognitive and behavioral disorders of personality in a modern environment. Today, music therapy is used more or less widely in almost all countries of the Western Europe, for a wide range of not only psychical but also somatic diseases, as any disease nosology distorts always the personality affective sphere in one or another way. Behaviour of persons prone to drug dependence are discussed for their interpersonal relationships, the main common features are shown. Numerous methods of music therapy include both common and per person using of music as the main or leading factor of influence. Moreover, these music techniques can be applied as addition to other corrective techniques, to enhance their impact and efficiency. The article describes the mechanisms of psychological adjustment. The role of an aesthetic component at different levels of personality adaptation of drug addicts is clarifies.

Keywords: adaptation, correction, therapy, addiction, emotional, psychological readiness, mental health, aesthetic component of behavior.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 79-88 (pdf)

UDC 316.614.6-053.6

Maksym O. V.

researcher of the Laboratory of Psychology of Socially Maladjusted Juveniles, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology, NAPS Ukraine, Kyiv

Features of maladjusted children’s adaptation to social and cultural environment

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article reveals the social and psychological aspects of methods for maladjusted children’s adaptation to social and cultural environment. It proves that psychological and pedagogical correction of maladjusted pupils’ self-direction can be achieved under joint efforts of a school psychologist, teachers and parents with the school psychologist as a leader. It includes optimization of relationships in the school social environment at all levels; engaging of adults and children to joint activities that allows them to exchange their experience and to create a safe environment for all participants; contributing to basic social needs of each student; stimulation of own socially oriented activities of each group. This article describes methods to use fairy tales in correctional developing work with socially maladjusted pupils. The main feature of the fairy tale therapy with students is interaction with pupils for evaluations. Psychological, pedagogical problems are elaborated due to moral and spiritual guidance and personal potential. The author stresses that fairy tales are efficient for correction and personal development due to such factors: absence of didactic, absence of clear personification; imagery and metaphorical language; psychological security. Determination of methods for psychological adaptation of children with impaired self-regulation will support creation of programs for teachers and psychologists to overcome social exclusion of maladjusted children and promote their proper integration into society.

Keywords: empathy, reflection, self-direction, self-control, psychological correction, self-esteem, social and psychological mechanisms of adaptation.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 88-96 (pdf)

UDC 159.922.73

Маksymova N. Yu.

Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Professor of the Department Social Work, Faculty of Psychology, Shevchenko National University of Кyiv

Parents’ divorce as a factor of child’s deviant behaviour

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article examines the factors leading to children’s deviant behaviour. It is shown that one of these factors is parents’ divorce. Deviant behaviour evoked by parents divorce can become apparent in different ways. Smaller children can show regress in their development, e.g. night enures, luck of self-direction, etc. Children of school age lose progress in their studies, discipline, they become aggressive, and they can escape from home, commit thefts, acts of hooliganism. They have frequently psychosomatic disorders, such as stomach pain, headache, insomnia, phobias, total excitement and locomotory disinhibition or vice versa, depression, apathy. But divorced parents understand rarely that their child’s behaviour or health worsening is connected with their divorce. Article discovers the mechanisms of deviations appearance in children’s behaviour, particularly influence of melancholic, guilty and fear feelings, which arise as the result of basic social need (need of security) deprivation. Article discovers the mechanism of this deprivation during parents’ divorce.

Article determines the conditions that allow family to prevent children’s deviant behaviour during parents’ divorce. Article shows that child’s negative feelings can be compensated by accurate parents’ policy during divorce, beginning from a message to their child about divorce. Parents must understand that their divorce has buried their family conflicts, and they must co-operate anew to upbring children and to help them to go thought parents’ divorce.It is proved that former couple seldom can provide normal functioning of divorced family without assistance, so, the psychological assistance is necessary.

Keywords: deviant behaviour, children, family, divorce, crisis, feelings, situation of life, conflict of affection.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 97-105 (pdf)

UDC 159.955:615.851

Manilov I. F.

Ph.D. of Psychology Sciences, Senior Scientist, leading researcher of Laboratory of Psychology of Socially Maladjusted Adolescents, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, Кyiv

Complex suggestive correction of adolescents deviant behavior

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article discusses the usage of complex suggestive psychological correction for deviant behavior of adolescents. It is shown that suggestion is a necessary component of the psychological correction process. It is demonstrated that emotional and behavioral problems are caused by disorder of cognitive processes. The author’s technique of confrontation suggestion is presented that allows psychologists to undertake correction of dysfunctional cognitive processes. It is determined that suggestion of lifestyle principles of continuous changeability, interdependence and relativity results in a stable psychotherapeutic effect. A sequence of psychological correctional procedures is determined as well as conditions and modes of confrontation suggestion. The general technique of complex suggestive influence on clients of juvenile age is described. It is recommended to perform the following sequence of actions at providing of complex psychological correctional suggestive influence, namely: establishing of a psychological contact with a client; identification of dysfunctional thoughts and ideas; suggestion of lifestyle principles of continuous changeability, interdependence and relativity; provocation of a cognitive dissonance state; formation of life goals and belief in possibility of their achievement; teaching to have a positive way of thinking; making a set towards autonomy in the situations of problems solving by means of indirect suggestion; suggestive follow-up for a client after completion of psychological correctional sessions.

Keywords: suggestion, suggestive influence, confrontation suggestion, deviant behavior, dysfunctional cognitive processes, complex suggestive psychological correction, lifestyle principles.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 105-116 (pdf)

UDC 159.9.072

Melnichuk O. B.

Ph.D. of Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Psychology and Psychology of Management, Institute of Social Work and Management of Dragomanov National Pedagogical University, Кyiv

Intellectual component of professional training of future social sphere specialists for their work with deviants

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article analyzes an intellectual component of professional training of future social sphere specialists for their work with deviants as a component of their psychological readiness to professional activities. The intellectual component of professional training of future social sphere specialists for their work with deviants is a prerequisite of efficient professional activities and performing of social and psychological rehabilitation of this category of people. A model of the intellectual component of psychological training of future social sphere specialists for their work with deviants is presented. It includes the following elements: 1) cognitive (a system of special knowledge about nature and specifics of deviations, their signs, symptoms and indexes, conditions of appearance and ways of overcoming as well as a system of preventative and rehabilitation measures in the aspect of this problem); 2) practical (knowledge of techniques and technologies of psychological and psychosocial help and social and psychological rehabilitation of people with deviant behavior); 3) prognostic (knowledge of factors and criteria of positive forecasts that appears during preventative and rehabilitative help to deviants as well as possession of special skills of help provision and performing of preventative and rehabilitative measures); 4) personal-regulatory (knowledge of risks of professional burn-out at work with deviant clients as well as ability to professional reflection and self-regulation, etc.)

Keywords: deviant behavior, people with deviant behavior, deviants, intellectual component of professional training,

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 117-124 (pdf)

UDC 159.9-07-316.6

Melnychuk T. I.

Ph.D. of Psychology Sciences, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine, Кyiv

Features of the economic socialization of children in the foster families

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: In the article highlights the theoretical and practical aspects of the contradictory process of entering the foster child in the family, considered the features of economic socialization and basic approaches of formation of economic culture of children in the foster care. Were analyzed social-psychological determinants of entering the deprived child into the world of the economy. Defined the directions of the relevant work foster parents, that contributing to the preconditions of economic thinking and their preparedness to self-determination and serve as a necessary condition for self-realization of the child into the new social environment, entry into a new, for her, world economic and market relations.Based on scientific-methodical literature and experience of practicing psychologists summarized that the economic socialization of children in foster families isn’t different to the economic socialization of children of blood, except in the cases where children have had previous negative social experiences. If in the foster families organize a busy life for children’s of the elementary economic knowledge, the actively involve them in joint activities in the conduct of family life, family budget, will develop in them ability manage their own funds «pocket money», it will help to children develop their own readiness for self-determination in the broader context of life, which will serve as a necessary condition for its fulfillment in the new social environment and entering her for a new world of economic and market relations and respectively effective socialization process.

Keywords: foster family, economic culture, socialization, social norms

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 125-134 (pdf)

UDC 159.9.072:351

Merkulova Yu. V.

Ph.D. of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogy, Odessa State University of Internal Affairs, Odesa

Mediation features during conciliation negotiations in a legal conflict

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article reviews the features of mediation during negotiations of conciliation between the parties of a legal conflict. It analyzes motives, emotions, feelings, thoughts of negotiators at conclusion of a settlement between the parties in a legal conflict, their consideration by an intermediary (mediator). Attention is drawn to the fact that, unlike during the formal judicial or arbitration process, parties reach an agreement themselves during mediation because the mediator is neutral towards the parties of the conflict, it is the third party that only contributes to the parties` mutually acceptable agreement by focusing on awareness of the parties about their interests and the agreement essence, which is adopted in the legal field and approved by a judge who examines the agreement in terms of legality and voluntariness of its adoption. So the mediator is not a judge or an arbitrator. He/she does not judge or make any decisions. He/she takes a neutral position, but it results in mutual understanding and finding of the most profitable alternative dispute resolution that can satisfy both sides. For lawyers, a court`s legal decision as for conflict settlement closes the issue. But it can be continued at the victim’s subjective experiences that can be overcome through consultation with a psychologist or even a specific psychotherapeutic work. It is emphasized that a compromise is the best solution to a legal conflict, but this process requires psychological support, otherwise the risk of disappointment with the mediation procedure process and results remains because the procedure can come to a standstill when the victim and the suspect cannot agree on basic principles, express their feelings or thoughts, they do not hear or understand each other.

Keywords: legal conflict, compromise, agreement between the victim and the guilty, feeling of guilt, forgiveness of the offender.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 134-142 (pdf)

UDC 159.923.5

Mytsko V. M.

Ph.D of Psychology, Associate Professor, doctoral student of Vasyl Stefanik Precarpathian National University, assistant professor of the Department of Educational and Developmental Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Vasyl Stefanik Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk

Semantic and statistic analysis of «violence» lexem using by web-site’s users

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The life of modern person is increasingly becoming connected with a new form of social reality – virtual communication environment. Virtual communicative space opens unlimited possibilities for manifestation of person’s own individuality, expands the boundaries of social competence and social importance of everyone, and provides a means to personal fulfillment. The study of real social processes and their importance in the formation of personality is impossible without enormous destructive as well as constructive influence of the virtual world of communication. The article resents the results of content analysis of the semantic category of «violence» in the virtual communication environment for the frequency of its use in certain types of Internet resources and total dominance in the plane on separate websites. The article contains comparative results of the three phases of empirical research conducted at different time intervals (2013, 2014, 2015 years) formed on a sample of authors and visitors of various internet sites. Results of the study show that a significant number of discussed topics, issues, manifestations of emotional reactions of Internet users touch on violence; theme of violent is discussed by Internet users, especially by web forum members, in blogs, online media. The most active participants discuss the topic of violence in chats and blogs. The less active users of violence thematic are administrators and social networking, web forums, online media and private sites. These trends were identical for the three phases of the study.

Keywords: violence, virtual communicative environment, content analysis, online resources, websites, web forums, social networks, blogs.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 143-151 (pdf)

UDC 159.922

Miroshnychenko O. M.

Ph.D. of Psychology, Associate Professor, internal service major, senior lecturer of pedagogy and psychology, Chernihiv Law College of the State Penitentiary Service of Ukraine, Chernihiv

Organization of social, educational and psychological work with juveniles having conflicts with the law

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: For successful prevention and control of crimes and offenses of minors having conflicts with the law, persistent, scientifically proven, consistent work is required to correct behavioral deviations of adolescents as well as deep analysis of factors, reasons and circumstances that lead to and cause offense. Deep and comprehensive study of a juvenile offender personality, his/her value-motivational sphere, interests, intellectual capacity, mental and physical health make the main content of social, educational and psychological work with juveniles having conflicts with the law.

Тhe study examined priorities of the State Penitentiary Service of Ukraine such as improving of organization of social, educational and psychological work with minors having conflict with the law at current functioning of the national penitentiary system.Іn this respect, the author wants to support the Service priorities by increasing of the level of organization of social, educational and psychological work with prisoners, defending the rights of children having conflicts with the law.

Тhe main purpose of implementation of this priority is to increase, above all, effectiveness of resocialization and social adaptation of that people who are sentenced to deprivation and restriction of freedom, to reduce prison recidivism among these individuals after their release from deprivation and restriction of freedom, to observe the rights and freedoms of children having conflicts with the law, to organize social adaptation of released juveniles and public involvement into promotion of reintegration of released persons into society.

Keywords: prison service, social and educational work, psychological work, deviant behavior, socialization, resocialization, social rehabilitation.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 152-159 (pdf)

UDC 159.9:316.6

Nedybaliuk O. S.

postgraduate student, Department of Social Work, Faculty of Psychology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

Determination of resocialization potential of juvenile offenders

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article examines the problem of determination of basic components of social and psychological readiness of juvenile convicts to resocialization. The personal component of social and psychological readiness to resocialization of juvenile convicts consists of individual typological features of personality, motivation, self-consciousness. The cognitive component of social and psychological readiness to resocialization includes social skills, competent behavior, awareness on professional activities. The behavioral component includes presence and estimation of relationships of convicted people with peers, with penitentiary system staff, analysis of convicted minors’ activities and their relations at will. The basic results of the empirical research are analyzed on the base of the components of social and psychological readiness. The concept of resocialization potential of the juvenile convicts is defined. The article shows that resocialization potential depends on development of subjectivity, reflection, formation of a goal-setting function, awareness on professional activities, availability of social skills, mastering of competent behavior strategies. It was determined that only one in ten juvenile convicts has a high level of resocialization potential. The system of predictive diagnostic to define resocialization potential of convicted minors is presented. The capability of the diagnostic methodology was investigated in penitentiary practice.

Keywords: social and psychological readiness, resocialization potential, juvenile convicts, subjectivity, goal-setting, reflection, competent behavior, social skills.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 160-170 (pdf)

UDC 159.944

Nekiz T.A.

student of the Institute of Natural Geographical and Environmental Education, Dragomanov National Pedagogical University, Kyiv

Prevention of psychologists’ emotional burnout at working with deviant teenagers

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The peculiarities of the phenomenon of «emotional burnout» at working with deviant teenagers are highlighted. The features of emotional burnout influence on personality performing his/her professional activities are discussed. Recommendations for prevention of psychologists’ emotional burnout are presented. The symptoms of the emotional burnout syndrome include exhaustion, manifested through strain and fatigue, personal detachment as an attempt to cope with emotional stressors at work, a sense of loss of self-efficacy, self-esteem under burnout. Loss of prospects in their professional activity leads to decreasing of job satisfaction, losing faith in own professional capabilities. The key symptoms of psychologists’ emotional burnout that can occur at work with socially maladjusted minors are: physical symptoms (physical fatigue, exhaustion, weight change, lack of sleep, insomnia, poor general health); emotional symptoms (lack of positive emotions, pessimism, psychological fatigue, feelings of guilt, a sense of helplessness and hopelessness); behavioral symptoms (significant time costs to overcome various forms of maladaptive behavior, absence of physical exercise, hobbies); mental symptoms (decreased interest in new concepts and ideas for the work, to alternative approaches to problem solving); social symptoms (low social activity, reduced interest in leisure, social contacts are limited to co-workers; scarce relationships at work, feeling of absence of support from family, friends, colleagues). It is emphasized that the key factor that determines the emotional burnout syndrome is presence of severe psychological traumatic experience because of overworking with the difficult contingent.

Keywords: burnout syndrome, psychologists, emotional exhaustion, prevention, deviant behavior.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 171-178 (pdf)

UDC 159.923

Novikova K. M.

external PhD student of the Department of Law Psychology, National Academy of Internal Affairs of Ukraine; psychologists of the Department of Psychological Prophylaxis and Professional Psychophysiological Selection, Governmental Office «Center of psychiatric help and professional psychophysiological selection of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine», Kyiv

Role of psychological attitudes in deviant behavior development

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article is devoted to the mechanism of psychological attitude influence to deviant behavior development. Aspects of the concept are examined in the article from the point of views of native and foreign scientists, a structure of violent criminals’ psychological attitudes is analyzed as well as their other individual psychological features. Psychological attitudes are forms of unconscious mental human activities. They are fixed in person’s system of values when they are repeated and have influence on person’s behavior. This research is conducted taking to account that the crimes of violence are often characterized as «without reason», are committed with cruelty, inflicting irreparable harm to people’s life and to health. In our view, it is important to reveal a role of psychological attitudes as an unconscious component in the structure of a personality of a violent criminal. The theory of attitude is examined in the framework of D.N. Uznadze views. Delinquent behavior as one of forms of deviant behavior is at the center of attention of the examination. There are initial results of research of the convicts who committed repeated crimes of violence. Results of the research of psychological features of criminals with violent orientation, including their unconscious sphere, can be actual for determination of reasons of deviant behavior; choosing of the methods for its effective preventing and psychological correction, especially for convicts in the places of imprisonment and also during rehabilitation after serving of punishment.

Key words: deviant behavior, violent criminality, unconscious, psychological attitudes, dispositions, delinquent behavior, preventive measures, psychological correction.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 179-187 (pdf)

UDC 159.923.3

Pavliuk M. M.

Ph.D of Psychology, assistant professor of psychology, Uzhgorod National University, Uzhgorod

The phenomenon of self-dependence in the context of adaptive processes

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article discusses the psychological mechanisms of self-dependence as a personal trait of future professionals, background of certain components of self-dependence and its procedural aspects. Potential of the psychological theories of personality is revealed in the context of self-dependence nature, deep origins of the phenomenon of learned helplessness as the opposite pole of self-dependence that is crucial for understanding of adaptive processes. The role of intrinsic motivation is emphasized, the source of which is the need for autonomy and self-determination. Strong evidences are shown that it is vital for a person to be self-dependent, able to self-determination and to act according to his/her motivation coming from within, not controlled externally. It was concluded that, for appearance of person’s «internal motivation» aimed to acting in a certain direction, he/she should be given a choice, which is crucial on psychological steps towards increasing of person’s adaptability. The phenomenon of personal helplessness, which is associated with inclination to depression, apathy, low stress resistance, conviction in futility of own actions, is characterized, and vitality is described that reduces the likelihood of manifestation of the above qualities and gives confidence in the ability to control events of own lives. Prospects of use of developmental objective laws of personal self-dependence of future specialists in the course of their professional training are discussed .

Key words: self-dependence, future specialists, training, learned helplessness, components of self-dependence, adaptive processes.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 187-197 (pdf)

UDC 159.922.24

Popeliushko R. P.

Ph.D. Psychology, Associate Professor, lecturer in the Department of Applied Psychology and Pedagogy, Khmelnytskyi National University, Khmelnitskyi

Features of psychological rehabilitation of combatants with means of natural recreation

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The problem of psychological rehabilitation of combatants is particularly relevant today which the ongoing anti-terrorist operation in the east of the country. The scale of this phenomenon within Ukrainian society needs an active study of psychological problems of soldiers, creating of nationwide special centers for social, psychological and medical assistance to former combatants, especially those who received combat wounds and injuries, became disabled. The article analyzed and discussed theoretical and practical issues relating to appearance of combatants, combat trauma (which refers to mental disorders, and diseases that lead to partial or even complete loss of their combat abilities as a result of the influence of factors of a combat situation which could injure the psyche of a soldier, and the conditions of military service during hostilities, as well as after their completion), psychological disorders, combat shock and combat fatigue and post-traumatic syndrome.Also, the features in the psychological rehabilitation of combatants with nature- and landscape-therapy are discussed; different forms of combatants’ rehabilitation with the means of natural recreation are analyzed. Natural recreation harmonizes human life, contributes to restoration of disturbed relationships and individual plans that underlie many mental disorders.

Кeywords: combat trauma, psychological rehabilitation, therapy with nature-, landscape-therapy.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 198-207 (pdf)

UDC 159.942.5

Prakhova S. A.

postgraduate student, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of NAPS Ukraine, Kyiv

Psychological nature, content and structure of the phenomenon of frustration

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article reveals a complex and multilevel structure and nature of the phenomenon. It is shown that motivational, behavioral, cognitive and emotional-volitional components of the human psyche play a crucially important role at emergence of frustrating conditions. It is noted that for holistic understanding of the phenomenon of frustration is necessary to distinguish between such categories as a frustrator, a situation of frustration, a frustration threshold, a state of frustration that are interdependent in the overall structure of frustration occurrence. The attention is focused on the fact that, in general, the frustration phenomenon can be understood as a complex structural multi-component formation that is cyclical in nature and exists as a multilevel and complex process of transition from a state of frustration to frustration. The phenomenon of frustration has a long history of research. Approaches to it understanding as well as interpretations of the phenomenon of frustration have being changed with changes of scientific paradigms. As there are a lot researches of this issue, there is a need for their classification. It seems advisable to classify all existing concepts of frustration according to two criteria: first, taking into account the principle of historicism; secondly, maintaining the principle of determinism. It is characteristic for researches of the Western European and American psychologists to consider the frustration as a specific research topic with an emphasis shifted on its manifestations and consequences; they tend to give a categorical assessment of the concept through a series of simple operations and analogies (which led to distortion and simplification of the definition), to focus the main attention on the behavioral aspects of the specified phenomenon (ignoring at the same time strictly psychological content of frustrations). Soviet psychologists considered frustration as a mental state in the framework of the activity approach.

Keywords: the phenomenon of frustration, frustration theory, determinants, frustration situation, frustration reaction.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 207-216 (pdf)

UDC 159.9

Rostomova L.1, Yakovenko S.2

1Ph.D. of Psychology, Associate Professor of Foreign Languages Department, Odessa State University of Internal Affairs, Odessa.

2Doctor of Psychology, Professor of Psychology and Pedagogy, Odessa State University of Internal Affairs, Odessa

The phenomenon of hatred and formation of tolerance in relations between children

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: Hatred is examined from the points of view of general, age and juridical psychology, a great attention is paid to the irrational and social factors of tolerance formation and skills of non-violent resolution of disputes as an alternative to hatred and violence. At tolerance cultivating, teenagers deserve a special attention, because this is the age of cultural identity, social attitudes and norms of behavior foundation; group and family norms are transformed to the norms of social behavior of an individual personality, including the capacity for empathy, assertiveness or conflict, positive or negative attitude toward the others in interaction with peers, members of other groups. Adolescents define an adequate social identity, empathy, respect, productive interaction with peers, with other people who have different values and views. The leading role in solving of the above problems belongs to social networks of the Internet and to Mass Media, to direct communications in a monoculture and ambiguity of meaning, to development of critical thinking as a factor of resistance to manipulative influence. So the further perspectives of the research we see in the opposition to «hate speech» – the intercultural dialogue, understanding and cooperation for a better future.

Key words: discrimination, xenophobia, hatred, tolerance, «hate speech».

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 217-227 (pdf)

UDC 159.97:616.89-008.44

Riabovol T. A.

senior researche of the Laboratory of Psychology of Socially Maladapted Adolescents, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of NAPS Ukraine, Kyiv

Psychological trauma as a determinant of disorders in the structure of empathy mechanism

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article is devoted to the issue of empathy development. Distortions of empathy structure and empathy mechanism dysfunctions are discussed. Their causes are examined, namely childhood psychical injuries when a small child feels abandoned, betrayed, humiliated. He or she has a small range of protective mechanisms which makes him/her to choose the one of three life strategies: «to others», «from others» or «against others». Our subconscious sees this choice as necessary for survival and it depends on reaction of environment. Specifics of empathy mechanism are formed to realize the one of life strategies. As a result, low, average or high levels of empathy can be formed. Accordingly to it, different components of empathy (emotional, mental, behavioral) are developed differently. The author analyses influence of psychical injuries on development of empathy mechanism. The influence of empathy distortions on social adaptation is also analyzed. Theoretical analysis of research of the issue is presented in the article. Necessity of further researches is justified. This kind of researches helps to correct empathy distortions more effectively and to influence positively on social adaptation.

Keywords: empathy, behavior, psychological trauma, social disadaptation, the strategy of life, directivity.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 228-237 (pdf)

UDC 159.9:614.8-051(043.3)

Synyshyna V. M.

Ph.D. of Psychology, lecturer of Psychological Department, Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod

Rehabilitation of perticipants of the ATO using methods of psychological help

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The problem of trauma and post-traumatic disorders is an actual problem of psychology. It concerns the fighters of anti-terrorist operations in particular, fighters who constantly face traumatic events associated with emotionally rich feelings, that are not common for people and rarely occur in a peaceful life. Numerous members of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and soldiers by conscription were involved in the anti-terrorist operation to resolve the armed conflict in eastern Ukraine in 2014. Returning back to normal life can be even harder than the traumatic experience itself. That is why we are talking about the need of psychological rehabilitation for those anti-terrorist operation fighters who are suffering from combat trauma.The subject of the article is the strategy of the anti-terrorist operation fighters how to overcome the stress caused by combat trauma; the aim of the article is to determine effects of psychological influence to provide psychological assistance to those who need it. Using the strategies, that are highlighted in the article, we can effectively counteract the stress and promote mental health of the fighters of the anti-terrorist operation.The article deals with measures to provide social and psychological assistance, particularly debriefing, that helps ATO members to overcome the psychological effects of stress factors and to successfully adaptate to normal life.

Keywords: stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, rehabilitation, debriefing, members of of ATO, self-regulation.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 237-246 (pdf)

UDC 159.922.8:004.738.5

Solomka E. T.1, Mykhailyshyn U. B.2

1Ph.D of Psychology, assistant professor of the Psychology Department, Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod

2Ph.D of Psychology, Associate Professor, Head of the Psychology Department, State higher education institution «Uzhhorod National University», Uzhhorod

Psychological characteristics of Internet addiction in early adolescence

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article deals with some aspects of the psychological characteristics of Internet-based impact on personality in early adolescence. Internet addiction is analyzed that is obsessive desire to enter the Internet, while off-line, and the inability to get out of the Internet, being on-line. Some Internet addicted users replaces communication with friends, family in real life with virtual communication. Symptoms of Internet addiction can be both psychological or physical, they are manifested in despair and anger, willingness to lie to friends and family, unwillingness to accept criticism of this way of life from relatives or leadership, willingness to tolerate their family destruction, loss of friends and social circle because of enthusiasm as for Internet, a sense of emotional recovery and a kind of euphoria when on-line, disregard for their own health, significant reduction of sleep duration, avoiding of physical activity or desire to cut it, neglect of personal hygiene, constant «forgetting» about the food, readiness to eat randomly and monotonous food. It was established that impact of Internet addiction severity on self-esteem and confidence depends on a self-esteem level: individuals with high levels of Internet addiction have low self-esteem, but these is no correlation between addiction severity and self-confidence. The correctional program in a training form is developed to reduce Internet dependence and to increase self-esteem and confidence for young people aged of 14-16 years.

Key words: Internet addiction, hacking, playing activity, communication activity on the Web, addictive behavior.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 247-256 (pdf)

UDC 316.614.034:316.624

Starkov D. Yu.

junior researcher of laboratory of Psychology of Socially Maladjusted Adolescents, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology, NAPS of Ukraine, Kyiv

Psychogenic factors and neutralization techniques for chemical addicts’ craving to consumption of psychoactive substances

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: Pathological craving (PC) for psychotropic substances consumption as a part of the chemical addiction syndrome is discussed in the article. The phenomenological picture of PC manifestations (processual nature, decreasing of struggle motives before consumption) and other mechanisms of returning to consumption (in which PC is not appeared) are described. The difference between PC and obsessive-compulsive disorder is shown. Narcological, behavioral and cognitive-behavioral models of PC are reviewed, their drawbacks at description of this phenomenon are shown. A new model of pathological craving based on J. Nuttin’s motivation theory is built. According to this theory, addictive motivation for consumption is regarded as a fixed by experience instrumental channel for satisfaction of basic needs. On the basis of this theory, the range of phenomenological manifestations of PC is explained. It is shown that creation of alternative «healthy» channels of basic need satisfaction is primary necessary for treatment of PC in particular and in the treatment of addiction in general. The mechanism of PC deactualization is analyzed. The principles of psychological corrective work on PC neutralization are proposed. Inefficiency of the rational approach is shown as well as necessity for regression methods. The practical technique of neutralization of the state of emergency is proposed based on the approaches of Ericksonian hypnosis and Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. The results of neutralization technique effectiveness for different types of customers are cited.

Key words: pathological craving, chemical addiction, neutralization techniques, psychotropic substances, addictive behavior.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 265-267 (pdf)

UDC 378.013.77:33848-051

Starova Yu. V.

practical psychologist, teacher of psychology, Humanitarian Pedagogical College, Mukachevo State University, Mukachevo

Methodological recommendations for psychological support of tourism business manager training

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article defines such notion as «psychological support for tourism business managers» and provides basic methodological recommendations for the subjects of educational process in university which will promote target training of managers’ administrative activities. Development of guidelines included usage of a certain psychological and educational complex that focused on all structural components of professional training: motivational, personal, cognitive and professional. Training of future business managers is performed with taking into account of psychological support features at each stage of the educational process.

In the course of the study, there were identified and grounded the criteria of effectiveness of psychological support at future manager’s training with the use of psychological and pedagogical technologies. They characterize their motivation for continuous learning (the motivational component), obtained professional knowledge and skills (the cognitive component), development of personal characteristics (the personal component), formed communicative, creative and analytical skills, organizational skills for their professional activities (the professional component). Our attention is focused on the components of the algorithm for future manager training according to the academic program. The presented guidelines and recommendations will provide opportunities for future managers to create the conditions for social mobility and to react adequately on changes in society.

Keywords: psychological assistance, management skills, motivation, personal sphere, professional self-determination, technologies of psychological support, professional socialization.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 268-276 (pdf)

UDC 159.942

Tereshchuk A. D.

Ph.D., Senior Scientist, Leading Researcher, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology, NAPS of Ukraine, Kyiv

Study of features of affective organization of behavior of children with mental retardation

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article reveals the psychological characteristics of emotional behaviour of children with mental retardation and the causes and consequences of the emergence of affective behaviours. The scheme is presented for child’s behaviour observing that determines the uniqueness of the affectivity structure that could significantly affect the features of consciousness and behaviour. A tiered approach is presented to study emotional behaviour regulation and impact of emotional and volitional immaturity on cognitive activity development. The dysfunction states of some type characteristic for changed organization and emotional development can identify different variants of child mental disorders. New approaches are outlined to diagnostics and correction of affective development of children. Original and effective ways to help children in their socialization and mental development are proposed. Specific features of emotional sphere of children are revealed that affect both adaptive behaviour and personality formation of children with mental retardation. With the developed model of affective behaviour organization, specific features of children’s emotional sphere are described. New approaches for diagnosis and correction of affective development of children with delayed mental development are outlined. Using the capabilities of the diagnostic technique BEO-TEST and following the developed scheme for child’s behaviour observation, psychologists can detect features of affective behaviour organization for children with delayed mental development at an early stage of school education. This will allows psychologists to prevent problems of child’s affective adaptation.

Key words: emotional disorders, affective behaviour, affective manifestations, levels of affective behaviour, mental retardation.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 267-284 (pdf)

UDC 159.91

Tkach B. M.

PhD of Psychology, person working for doctor’s degree of I. O. Synytsya Laboratory of Psychology of Studying, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology, National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv

Deviant behavior: evolutionary-neuropsychological approach

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: Deviant behavior from the perspective of evolutionary-neuropsychological approach is considered. Neuropsychological differences and similarities are characterized for different forms of deviant behavior. Multilevel analysis shows that the basis of deviant behavior are ancient patterns of behavior that were once adaptive but because of dysfunction of frontal lobe of the brain they become uncontrollable, in this case, a trigger is hyper function of the right hemisphere. We are convinced that neuropsychological diagnosing should involve neuropsychological research of sibling and parents, the phylogenetic history can predict quite accurately what difficulties can be expected to a child in the future and how to strengthen the weak links in higher mental functions and thus prevent faulty adaptation and appearance of deviations. Prospects for research: for creation of a directive classification of deviant behavior forms, a multidisciplinary study of the neuropsychological mechanisms of adaptive decision- making of a person in socio-cultural contexts should be performed as well as a study of these mechanism development during evolution and characteristic gender dypsyhizm. Further research directions on modern neuropsychological diagnosis and deviant behavior correction are defined. Creation of a directive classification of the deviant behavior forms is proposed based on psychobiological subtypes.

Keywords: deviant behavior, neuropsychology, evolutionary approach, personality, frontal lobe of the brain.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 284-294 (pdf)

UDC 316.47

Tovstokora Yu. V.

postgraduate student, Institute of Social and Political Psychology of the NАPS Ukraine, Kyiv

Legitimization of «Other as somebody different» in the communicative space of communities: constructing of a new identity

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article analyzes the characteristics of legitimization of «Other as somebody different» and conditions of new identity constructing. Considering particularities of social norms and forms, it is shown that these features have an impact on legitimization of «Other as somebody different». The category of «Other as somebody different» is considered as a discursive construct. It is shown that this construct has major influence on composition of a dialogue between social groups. The fact lays in a focus that accepting of «Other as somebody different» is an integral component of social de-stigmatization. It forms a dominant sense and neutralizes the negative content of others. The fact is highlighted that construction of «Other as somebody different» must go through the next stages: typification, habitualization, institutionalization, legitimization. It is shown that a possible scheme of constructing of «Other as somebody different» can be the so-called «Overton window». The scheme is based on gradual transition from the rejection of «Other as somebody different» as impossible one to his/her accepting as possible. According to this scheme, article demonstrates the attempt to legitimize «Other as otherness» for solving problems such as acceptance of people with an unusual appearance and specific needs, a right for social minorities to exist, struggle for human rights, etc. The prospect is outlined for analysis of events that are opposite to social norms and social and psychological technologies are described that can lead to search of the ways for mitigation of discrimination in the communicative space.

Key words: legitimating of «other as the otherness», social norms, «Overton window», custom, ritual, tradition, moral norms, religious norms.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 295-304 (pdf)

UDC 371.035.6-057.874

Tiahur V. M.

Ph.D. of Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Department of Pre-School and School Education, Deputy Director of Humanitarian Pedagogical College, Mukachevo State University, Mukachevo

Usage of Georg Kerschensteiner’s ideas for development of modern school students’ personalities

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article gives a historical analysis of the organization and functioning of labor schools in Germany held by Georg Kerschensteiner. There, the artistic and aesthetic education was implemented via a set of methodological tools and techniques that responded not only the natural and intellectual aspiration of children, but also their social instincts for successful mastering of professions important for their lives. The attempts of adaptation of this experience into the Ukrainian educational system in the beginning of the twentieth century are discussed in the article. Thanks to Georg Kerschensteiner’s efforts, an effective method of art-graphic skill forming and children’s creativity differentiation was developed. Three main objectives of labor school that are still relevant today are defined in the article: collective work of pupils, education of citizenship and comprehensive aesthetic education. The article concludes that the basis of the school life organization must be formed with active use of industrial arts during which the work serves as a means of experience gaining, team building at school and education of a comprehensively developed personality. Argumentation is presented concerning the requirements necessary for effective adaptation of this experience for reorientation of modern education in Ukraine into European educational and vocational standards for the formation of a constructive, creative, fully developed personality with firm civil position. The article is intended for a wide range of readers, including teachers and university students, school teachers and scientists.

Key words: labor school, manual work, artistic-aesthetical education, formation of art skills and abilities, Ukrainian-German relations, civic education, comprehensive development of a personality.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 304-314 (pdf)

UDC 373.21.013.82:691.22

Tiahur L. M.

teacher of psychology, Humanitarian Pedagogical College, Mukachevo State University, Mukachevo

Sand-play as a method of positive influence on mental development of preschool aged children

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of sand therapy as healthy preserving innovative technology dedicated to work with children of the preschool age. Sand therapy allows psychologists to reveal an individuality of every child, to solve psychological problems, to develop children’s ability to recognize their desires and find possibilities of their implementation. In this article the features of sand therapy as a method of creating extensive opportunities for full disclosure of children’s potential are discussed. It was established that sand-play has a positive effect on formation and development of a child’s balanced personality. This effect is shown through its impact on emotional and sensual sphere, intellectual and communicative abilities, psycho-physiological state. The characteristic of usage of different methods of sand play in practice are also given in the article: games with sand, drawing on the sand, drawing with the help of coloured sand, tales on the sand. It was concluded on this basis that sand-play is an effective psychological aid in shaping of child’s self-confidence and self-esteem, harmonization of internal emotional state, especially in conflicts, vulnerability or within any traumatic situations. Thanks to sand therapy introduction into the practice of pre-school education institutions we can influence on preschoolers’ creativity, imagination, development of their emotional sphere and psychological tone. The article is intended for a wide range of readers, including teachers and university students, educators of preschool children, school teachers and scientists.

Keywords: sand-play, Jungian theory, sand therapy, preschool age, playing with sand, sand painting, tales on the sand.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 315-324 (pdf)

UDC 159.923.2:316.614.5

Uhryn O. H.

Ph.D. of Psychology, assistant professor of the Department of Administrative Psychology, Lviv State University of Internal Affairs, Lviv

Gender peculiarities of persons with different levels of readiness to professional self-fulfillment

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article examines the problem of psychological readiness to professional self-fulfillment of students. Gender peculiarities of persons with different levels of readiness to professional self-fulfillment and a role of their parents in detection of such differences are analyzed. Women have a higher level of readiness to professional self-fulfillment in comparison with men. As for the parents’ position, women show correlation between a high level of readiness to professional self-fulfillment and fathers’ support; flexible mothers upbringing influence on men: support from the one hand, and severity and control form the other one. For women, mothers’ severity and control are unfavorable for formation of psychological readiness to professional self-fulfillment, and, for fathers’ severity has a negative impact. As for values for women, the factors of high readiness to professional self-fulfillment include a desire for self-realization, personal identity orientation (personal achievements, satisfaction of personal desires). Men having high readiness to professional self-fulfillment show that the main values for them are cognitive and creative attitudes, «here and now» time perception, collective identity orientation.

Key words: psychological readiness to professional activity, gender, types of identity orientations, family.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 324-331 (pdf)

UDC 616.89:316.64

Ukhanova A. I.

postgraduate student of the Department of Clinical Psychology, Mechnikov National University in Odessa

Parental involvement as a factor of mental health of Ukrainian adolescents

Language: Russian

Abstract: The paper presents the empirical study of relationship between the parental involvement and the attitude to factors of healthy and unhealthy behavior, suicidal behavior and Internet addiction in adolescents. There are no sufficient data about influence of parental involvement on all these factors in Ukraine. SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) inventory was proposed for answering to the students of age between twelve to eighteen years from ten schools of Odessa, Ukraine. The original version of the scale of parental involvement (SPI) was adapted with the sample of Ukrainian adolescents. SPI showed a high level of internal consistency reliability. Statistically significant differences by gender in accordance with the SPI were not found. It was discovered that the highest level of parental involvement was seen regarding the control over spare time of adolescents, while the least level – regarding the control of their learning and their school performance. The direct relationship was found between the integral scale of SPI and unhealthy lifestyle factor «alcohol use/ occasional strong drinks», as well as the healthy lifestyle factor «smoking free environment». With the increase of the parental involvement, unhealthy behavior factors such as «pharmacological control» and «vomiting for the weight loss» were reduced. It was found that the severity of suicidal tendencies and Internet addiction in adolescents was in inverse relation to the level of parental involvement.

Key words: adolescents, parental participation, healthy behavior, psychometric scale, mental health.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 332-347 (pdf)

UDC 159.923.33

Fedorovycheva O. L.

teacher of Geography of secondary school № 224 in Kyiv

Psychological drama resources in the context of adaptation of relocated children with help of geography lessons

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The article raises the problem of adaptation of relocated children with help of geography lessons. The theoretical aspects of psychodrama method are discussed as well as its resources in the context of social processes and interaction mechanisms understanding between a person and a group. In particular, attention is focused on psychodrama psychotherapeutic opportunities to transform negative emotional states of the relocated children into positive ones and adapt these children to a new socio-cultural environment. Most resourceful technique are proposed that can be used at geography lessons, they allow a teacher to use children’s own experience in the adapting process, their attitude and world outlook during interpretation of events in Ukraine and worldwide. The author highlights that psychodrama, as a method revealing problems in human communities, exists for a long times, but only recently it was developed as an independent system of psychological help. A social-metric research can reveal underlying emotional structures in a group, in our case it is a school class, show the nature of emotional ties between children and peculiarities of their perception of the contemporary situation at regional and all-Ukrainian level. The article presents convincing arguments that the studied group structure, interpersonal relationships and interactions in the class community, revealed in psychodrama, enable children to be included at joint projects, improve their communication skills, creativity and social maturity.

Key words: psychodrama, relocated children, group work, psycho-emotional state, transformation.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 347-355 (pdf)

UDC 159.923.2-053.6

Khomchuk O. P.

postgraduate student, Dragomanov National Pedagogical University in Kyiv

Theoretical substantiation of the forming experiment for adolescents’ self-confidence development

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: Self-confidence development from the points of view of different scientific approaches is analyzed in this article, especially, forming experiments aimed at self-confidence developing in adolescence, their principles, stages, tasks, forms of psychological correction. In today’s world, self-confidence is a very important and necessary character trait. Especially/ it is important for teenagers. Adolescence is an age when a person reassess own interests, values, changes evaluation criteria for themselves. Analysis of scientific concepts makes it possible to conclude that self-confidence is manifested through positive self-esteem, skills and abilities to pursue own goals and to satisfy personal needs.

The analyzed experimental results shows that teenagers mostly have an unbalanced level (middle and low) of self-confidence and the negative trend grow for 14-15-year-olds compared to 13 - 14 years old teenagers. Therefore there is a need for psychologically focused work to improve the confidence level in this age. Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood and is characterized by life crises. Teenager’s self-confidence development under influence of dominant internal factors, such achievement motivation, reflection, autonomy, coping is discussed. The self-confidence level correlates with the level of manifestation of the above personal determinants. Development of these determinants supports improving of adolescents/ self-confidence.

Key words: autonomy, self-confidence, achievement motivation, reflection, coping strategies, adolescence, self-understanding, self-assertion.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 355-363 (pdf)

UDC 159.922

Chopyk S. V.

Ph.D. of Psychology, a lecturer of the Department of Applied Psychology, Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University in Ternopil

The role of the level of aspiration for personality adaptation in society

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The concepts of «adaptation», «social and psychological adaptation» are discussed in this article. It is noted that the specific of social and psychological adaptation is not only in possibility of adaptive activities, but also in existence of transforming activities. The main factors that influence persons’ adaptation in society and the criteria defining person’s adaptation are analyzed. The article shows that the same psychological characteristics (psychological emotional stability, personal comfort, a sense of satisfaction, acceptance of self and others, etc.) can be simultaneously the factors of adaptation and the critera of its success. Detailed study of the level of aspiration in the context of adaptation is especially necessity nowadays. The article analyzes links between the level of aspiration and self-esteem, motivation, anxiety, self-regard, the process of life goal formulating. Various options of combination of self-esteem and the level of aspiration are characterized, their impact on the personal social adaptation is examined: high difference between the level of aspiration and self-esteem increased anxiety, frustration, aggressiveness; and contrary, correspondence of these characteristic, especially at adequately high level, determines the ability to react calmly at a difficult situation. The relations between the level of aspiration and personality characteristics and social and psychological adaptation are discussed. The article shows that the level of aspiration can be the factor of adaptation and the criterion of its success.

Key words: adaptation, social and psychological adaptation, aspiration, level of aspiration, self-esteem, «affect inadequacy», motivation, confidence.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 363-371 (pdf)

UDC 159.922.72/.76-057.66(477.83)

Shyroka A. O.1, Kuzio I. M.2, Kubay I. A.3, Franchuk A. О.4

1Ph.D. of Psychology, the assistant of Theoretical and Applied Psychology Department, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv

2masters in Applied Psychology, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv

3student of 4th course in Applied Psychology, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv

4student of 4th course in Applied Psychology, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv

The peculiarities of homeless and neglected children’s intellect

Language: Ukrainian

Abstract: The theoretical analysis of the concept of intelligence, factors of children intellectual disability and diagnosis of mild mental retardation based on the materials of classical theories and modern research are presented. Results of the empirical research of intellectual characteristics of children from the Orphanage at the age between 10-16 years are processed. According to results, two distinct groups are distinguished among children as for their intellectual abilities. The first group consists of 34% of children who does not have significant intellectual difficulties, the children from the second group – 76% - have considerable intellectual delays. For some scales, their results are more than two standard deviations lower than the average indicators of the same-age children attending ordinary schools. The comparison of level of intelligence between children from the Orphanage at the age of 10-16 years and children attending the 5th-8th forms is presented. It has been established that intellectual abilities of the most homeless children at the age between 13-16 years does not differ from children who attend 5-th form. Also, they have statistically lower short-term memory performance and worse ability to logical conclusions. Comparing to their peers, children from Orphanage have significantly decreased levels of general knowledge and arithmetic abilities. Overall, taking the results of current investigation, the opportunities for further studies and the ways of promoting of Orphanage children’s intellectual development are discussed.

Key words: intelligence, homeless children, psychological assessment, mental retardation, psychological correction of child’s cognitive sphere.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 372-383 (pdf)

UDC 159.922.763:159.942

Shcherbyna-Pryluka V. M.1, Shykulenko A. V.2

1researcher of laboratory of Psychology of Socially Maladjusted Adolescents, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of NAPS Ukraine, Kyiv

2junior researcher of laboratory of Psychology of Socially Maladjusted Adolescents, Kostiuk Institute of Psychology, NAPS of Ukraine, Kyiv

Some aspects of harmonization of emotional sphere of adolescents with deviant behavior

Language: English

Abstract: The article studies individual psychological characteristics of emotionality of adolescents with deviant behaviour and determine the ways to harmonize emotional well-being on their basis. It is shown that characteristics of the emotionality of criminals are an important factor that determines types of crimes they commit. Deviations in adolescent’s emotional sphere are an important factor of appearance of violent actions. Our study of the components of people emotional constructs shows difference in functioning of the emotional sphere of under-age offenders and their law-abiding peers. The article argues that a degree of emotional sphere harmonization is determined by emotions, experiences and feelings that are depend on an external and internal psychological situation of a person, his/her mental state in general. The program is presented that support harmonization of teenagers’ emotional well-being and personal characteristics that have influenced on it; it presents key characteristics of emotional experiences and feelings as a course of psychotherapeutic interventions; psychologist’s working methods that are aimed at reducing of anxiety, impulsivity, anger overcoming, improving of emotional well-being, restoring of trust and interactions.

Key words: emotional sphere, deviant behavior, under-age convicted, harmonization of emotional well-being.

Aktual_probl_psihol 2015, 11(13): 384-393 (pdf)