Actual Problems of Psychology. Volume 4. Psychology development of children preschool age. Issue 16 – 2020


Content of Issue

UDC 373-056.2/.3

Pirozhenko T.O.

Language: Ukrainian

Childhood as the value: past and present in the researches of psychological science.

In the article presents positions of development the childhood psychology science of as the special social value, that demonstrates adult’s cultural self-consciousness. Concertize that the notions about childhood in the realm of humanitarian, social and natural sciences realized in two directions. The first direction unionizes problems and questions about the culture of childhood: the surrounding in the general sense, the encirclement, cultural forms, which adults are producing for children. The second direction characterizes the nature of childhood, the manifestation of the infant essence, the childhood’s subculture, forms of activities of the itself. The article proves that the idea of childhood and its comprehension as the value (axiological sense) aspect is once of the key because it demonstrates the form of adult’s cultural self-consciousness in the relation to children, realizing through the values of interaction between generations.

Key words: childhood, development of the child, valuable orientation, characteristics and functions of the values in society.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 4-21 (pdf)

UDC 159.9:373.24

Balitskaya I. M.

Language: Ukrainian

Psychological – pedagogical aspects of the interaction of the preschool teacher with the parents of the pupils.

The article presents the psychological and pedagogical aspects of the partnership between the teachers of the kindergarten and the parents of the pupils. The essence of the pedagogical cooperation of the preschool institution with parents is considered as a way to increase and coordinate the educational impact on preschool children.

The purpose and principles of the organization of such cooperation are disclosed. Modeled and characterized modern approaches in the formation of pedagogical - parental relations.

Key words: psychological and pedagogical culture, partnership interaction, value orientations, pedagogical cooperation, value attitude.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 22-33 (pdf)

UDC 378.091.313:159.955-021.412.1

Belenkaya A.V.

Language: Ukrainian

Interactive teaching methods as a means of developing students’ critical thinking.

The article considers the possibilities of using interactive teaching methods to develop the key skills of the 21st century – critical thinking: the ability to find, to analyze and to evaluate information. As for the students – future teachers in the field of preschool education, the development of critical thinking is an important condition for a successful professional activity, extremely complicated and multi-vector. The author presents an experience of using a number of interactive teaching methods in working with the students of the second (master’s) educational level of specialty 012 – preschool education.

The method “Six pairs action shoes” by the British psychologist Edward de Bono is considered. This method may be deeply practice-oriented and, at the same time, contributed to development of critical thinking. The article provides examples of problematic issues, discovers the stages of developing the students’ critical thinking, and presents the dynamics of changes according to criteria: the objectivity of thinking – reliance on facts and their analysis, the tolerance to alternative opinions and assessments, the communication – the ability to interact with others in identifying and solving complex professional tasks.

Key words: critical thinking, Edward de Bono, interactive teaching methods, masters, method “Six pairs action shoes”, preschool school age children, self-development.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 33-45 (pdf)

UDC 159.942:0057.87

Dmitryuk N.S.

Kordunova N.O.

Language: Ukrainian

Psychological problems of emotional development of preschool children.

The article attempts to reveal the importance of the emotional development of the child at the stage of preschool childhood and to highlight its importance in becoming a preschooler as a person. It is revealed on the basis of empirical research of peculiarities of psychological problems in emotional development among senior preschoolers: general negative emotional state of health from stay in educational institution; problems in relationships with parents, caregivers and peers; dissatisfaction with their own activities; dissatisfaction with yourself.

It is proved that for the effective development of the emotional sphere of children it is necessary to provide certain psychological and pedagogical conditions. It is shown that the developed sphere of emotions, feelings enables one to acquire one's own experience. A brief description of the peculiarities of the development of the emotional sphere and the causes of difficulties in the awareness of emotional manifestations in the children studied. It is shown that in order for the development of the emotional sphere of children in the conditions of preschool educational institution to be effective, it is necessary for educators and parents to constantly care about the development of the emotional sphere of the child, to ensure the preparation of future caregivers for the activity of emotional development of children of preschool age, to substantiate effective psychological and pedagogical conditions .

Key words: emotional sphere, emotional development, older preschool children.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 46-58 (pdf)

UDC 159.953.5-057.874*1кл.

Doroshenko M.I.

Language: Ukrainian

The Influence of the Mental Abilities of the First-form’s Pupils on their success within the educational activity.

The article reveals the mental abilities of the first-form’s pupil as the subject of the scientific analysis. It was analyzed the interconnection of the mental abilities and the educational activity of the pupils of the first form. It was developed the method, procedure of the research and the interpretation of the results; it is proposed the system of exercises and tasks oriented on the development of the mental abilities of the pupils of the first form.

Key words: pupils of the first form, mental abilities, educational activit, successfulness.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 58-74 (pdf)

UDC 159.954.4-026.15-053.4

Zozulia I. M.

Language: Ukrainian

Features of creativity of children of preschool age: analysis of mechanisms of manifestation.

The article presents the results of theoretical analysis of the problem of manifestation of creativity of children of preschool age. An attempt to reveal the essence the concept of «creativity» was made. It is seen as potential, an internal resource of personality, its ability to abandon stereotypical ways of thinking or the ability to identify new solutions to problems. Creativity is also understood as a personality's ability to be constructive, non-standard thinking and behavior, awareness and development of their experience. It is an integral quality of personality that shapes and determines creativity in all spheres of its activity. The cognitive need that forms the basis of cognitive motivation as a mechanism of manifestation and a developing component of the creative potential is considered. It is noted that the cognitive need for creativity dominates over other types of motivation and its manifestation in the emotional immediacy of the child, the great need for new experiences, the desire to actively try, transform, invent, in the ease of emergence of new images, in unusual judgment. The role of imitation in shaping creativity is defined. It is noted that creativity requires a certain level of socialization, which involves mastering basic communication skills. The stages of the process of forming creativity by imitation are described: 1) imitation-copying – the child repeats the ready course of action; 2) creative imitation – the child introduces minor elements of novelty in his actions; 3) reproductive creativity – the child significantly changes the idea taken as a basis; 4) true creativity – characterized by the creation of new.

Key words: creativity, children of preschool age, mechanisms of manifestation of creativity, cognitive need, cognitive activity, imitation.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 75-88 (pdf)

UDC 159.923

Karabayeva I.I., Tereschenko L.А.

Language: Ukrainian

The developmental educational environment of the preschool education institution: main components, stages of formation and criteria for its evaluation.

Proceeding from theoretical research of modern scientific psychological and pedagogical literature, existing approaches to the definition of a developmental educational environment are described. Therefore, the developmental educational environment is a relatively new concept that has become part of the thesaurus of pedagogy and psychology only in the last decade. Its content cannot be considered clearly defined and constant but most professionals use the concept of a developmental educational environment for a complete description a comprehensive description of the specific features of a particular educational institution.

Generalization of various approaches to the definition of the concept leads to the conclusion that the developmental educational environment of a modern institution is an integrated concept that synthesizes a number of psychological-pedagogical, material-technical, sanitary-hygienic, ergonomic, aesthetic conditions due to the interaction of which the child's comprehensive development is carried out. This is a set of socio-psychological, pedagogical, informational, technical and other subsystems that ensure the achievement of the goal of the educational process; set of material, spiritual and social conditions of the educational process. It is a system of conditions and influences that contribute to the active development, learning, upbringing of a child's personality, his or her ability to act independently and to adapt to change.

The article proposes to review the thesis, based on the main components: socio-psychological, substantive-content and material-technical a developmental educational environment of the preschool education institution goes through the stages of realization: formation, functioning, analytical and productive stage.

This paper presents a theoretically defined system of evaluation criteria of the developmental educational environment including:

1) possibilities of the educational environment in ensuring the harmonious development of children;

2) the effectiveness of creative and research activities of children;

3) creating conditions for self-realization of the individual in creative activity;

4) the ability of the environment to meet the complex needs of the child and to form a system of social and spiritual values.

Key words: preschool education institution, environment, developmental, educational, developmental educational environment.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 89-101 (pdf)

UDC 37.091.12:005.962.131

Kovalenko О.V.

Language: Ukrainian

Motivational readiness of future educators of preschool children for self-realization in professional activity: criteria and indicators of level.

The article presents a study of the definitive characteristics of basic concepts using encyclopedic and explanatory dictionaries, encyclopedias and reference books. Based on the study and analysis of psychological and pedagogical research, the requirements for the teacher of the institution of preschool education in the historical context and from the standpoint of modernity are described. Studies on the motivational readiness for future teachers of preschool children to fulfill themselves have been worked out, and on this basis its criteria and level indicators have been identified.

Key words: motive, motivational readiness, self-realization, future educators of preschool children, professional activity, criteria, level indicators.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 102-117 (pdf)

UDC 373.2:364.64

Kondratec I.V.

Language: Ukrainian

Reflexive analysis of foreign and domestic experience of supporting a child to burning.

The article analyzes the foreign and domestic experience of the concepts of “work of grief”, stages (phases) of living and the features of accompanying a person in grief. Behavioral manifestations and emotional reactions of children by age groups are characterized. The views of researchers on the question "when to tell a child about death", "how to tell a child about loss" are highlighted. The literature for children is presented, which readily and illustratively reveals the topic of loss.

The conditions for the implementation of support and help in grief for preschool children are defined: the creation of a reliable and stable environment; manifestation of love, warmth and attention in relation to the child; support for daily routine, especially sleep; adequate (without legends and myths) memories of the deceased; the formation of correct and honest ideas about death; providing freedom to the child in the manifestation of their feelings and the limit of trust in open conversations with adults.

Recommendations on the regulation of the emotional background are given and the basic concepts for the implementation of psychological and pedagogical support of the child in the process of loss are identified, namely, reflective exercises for working with emotions, reading thematic literature, using fairy tales and phototherapy, music and sand therapy.

Key words: grief, loss, emotions, support, help, reflection.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 117-132 (pdf)

UDC 373.2.016:81-028.31

Krolivets Y.V.

Language: Ukrainian

The influence of perception on speech and language development of preschool children.

The article highlights the scientific and theoretical analysis of the problem of the influence of perception processes on speech and language development of preschool children. The сorrelation between the processes of visual perception and speech of preschool children is revealed. The essence of the phenomenon «perception» and «image» are discovered. Preschool children’s speech develops in the process of images differentiation and verbal transformation of representations. Attention is paid to the preschool children’s peculiarities of perception the surrounding reality and its verbalization. The perception of images has a positive effect on the development of coherent preschool children’s speech.

Nowadays the development of psycholinguistic science the problem of influence of perception on speech and language preschool children’s development is not enough researched, in contrast to the impact of the speech on the process of perception.

Key words: perception, image, speech, statement, development, preschool children.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 133-148 (pdf)

UDC 159.922.73 – 053.4 (043.3)

Melnyk I.S.

Language: Ukrainian

The psychological basis of the prevention of communication disorders in early preschool children in the process of interaction with parents.

The article is devoted to the disclosure of the psychological foundations of the prevention of communication disorders in early preschool children (at different age stages of preschool childhood) in the process of game interaction with parents. The article describes the process of formation of the child’s communicative sphere in the norm and the main diagnostic significant points in the mental development and behavior of children with communicative disorders. Practical recommendations are given to parents on the prevention of communicative disorders of children and the organization of effective game interaction with their children, who are already experiencing communication difficulties. The prospects of research on this issue are outlined.

Key words: speech, communication, communication disorder, game, interaction of parents with a child.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 148-161 (pdf)

UDC 316.752,159.923.2 – 053.4

Soloviova L.I.


Terminal and instrumental values of children of the senior preschool age.

The article is devoted to the explaining of the features of the terminal and instrumental values of children at the stage of their appropriation in senior preschool age. Modern methods of studying M. Rokeach value orientations, adapted for preschool children, are analyzed. Applied diagnostic methods are presented. The structure of terminal and instrumental values of preschool children in the unity of their cognitive, emotional and activity components is outlined. The rating of known, significant and effective values-goals and values-means is determined. The state of formation of the value structure of the studied children is characterized.

Key words: terminal and instrumental values, structure of values, rating of values, child of the senior preschool age.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 162-178 (pdf)

UDC 373.2.091:316.422 (045)

Tyshchuk L.I.

Language: Ukrainian

Factors of development of innovative activities of teachers of institution of prpeschool education.

The article analyzes organizational and psychological factors relating to the internal factors of the institution of preschool education, which under the conditions of change significantly affect the pedagogical activity. Organizational and psychological approach considers a set of interrelated factors in terms of their impact on the development of innovative activities of teachers, which may have different impact on the development of preschool children. The article investigates the peculiarities of factors that shape the conscious need to introduce pedagogical innovations, support and stimulate the development of human resources, provide continuous exchange of information about the circumstances of innovative searches. The author offers her own vision of the characteristics of the main groups of factors that influence the style of personnel management, social and psychological climate, elements of corporate culture.

Key words: institution of preschool education, organizational and psychological factors, corporate culture.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 178-194 (pdf)

UDC 373. 2 : 159. 938

Tovkach I. Е.

Language: Ukrainian

Understanding preschool child’s speech as a psycholingvistic phenomenon.

This article is devoted to theoretical aspects of the problem of the preschool child’s speech as a psycholinguistic phenomenon. Speaking in the article on speech and speech activity in general, we mean not only the development of the preschool child’s speech, but also the formation of speech activity and normative language proficiency in the productive activity of the child, where an important role plays the mental image as a structural component of the child's speech processes during the active speech; the presence of the world's linguistic picture of every senior preschool child. Work on mastering and comprehension of preschool child’s speech as a qualitative perception and understanding of what the child has mastered practically, his involvement in speech activity should be accomplished not only taking into account age characteristics, but also the individuality of each child, his interests, desires and preferences, etc. And absolutely definitely - it is impossible to accomplish individualization of children without individualization of adults (educators and parents). An important role in this process belongs to the artistic and speech activity of preschool children. Preschool child’s speech in psycholinguistics is represented by numerous concepts of both foreign and domestic psycholinguistics. In our opinion, the lack of a complete description of the problem with speech activity and child’s speech in the scientific literature to some extent complicates further understanding of the material on the theory and methodology of language learning and the development of the preschool child’s speech. Taking into account the complexity of linguistic concepts, different thoughts of teachers, psychologists, linguists and other scholars, generalizing them, students and experts need to be given a clear idea of the children’s perception of speech in modern psycholinguistics, which can be done during the study of the course, using the achievements of modern scientific doctrine of speech activity.

Key words: speech, speech activity, understanding, comprehension, text, preschool children.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 195-209 (pdf)

UDC 373.2.015.3:17.022.1

Tokaryeva L.D.

Language: Ukrainian

Specificity of interaction adult and preschool child in accepting valuable orientations in family conditions.

The article highlights the problem of setting benchmarks for preschoolers in a family setting. Emphasis is placed on the fact that it is the family that is the primary basis of a society where the individual characteristics of each parent, their children are manifested.

The article emphasized the responsibility of parents for the future, for what arsenal of spiritual, moral values they equip it for the future. Emphasis was placed on the psychological characteristics of the preschooler in his emotional sphere, which is shaped by the living conditions that adults in the family create for him.

The article emphasized the importance of preschool age, as a special period, the intensive development of all mental processes, in the development of the child's personality.

The article presents four pronounced types of higher nervous activity: sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic and melancholic. The article explains of these types of temperament, which will expand to parents the information field of knowledge about the individual features of each child, will help to direct them to discover the potentialities of their child, will help to choose the right approach to it and will provide the possibility of constant psychological and pedagogical support, which will preserve mental and physical support child's health.

Key words: value benchmarks, family, preschooler, sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 210-222 (pdf)

UDC: 159.922.27

Fedorchuk O.I.

Language: Ukrainian

Fundamentals of family socialization of the preschooler.

The article provides experimental analysis of features and psychological and pedagogical conditions of family socialization of a senior preschooler. The task is to investigate the peculiarity of the development of value orientations of older preschoolers in a family setting and to confirm practically the role of a close adult in the process of socialization of the child. In this research was used target observations, systems of developmental interactive methods, individual conversations, conversations with children, educators and parents. The analysis of the obtained data allowed us to form a generic characteristic of the children of the older group of preschool institution. To get a real picture of the nature and content of the child's internal family relationship with the adult, his or her role functions in family communication we used a homework questionnaire. It was conducted a survey for parents on domestic violence issues and a series of thematic consultations of "Child aggression: causes and consequences".

The process of socialization of the older preschooler is uneven, individual and requires careful psychological and pedagogical support. Educational influences of an adult should take place in a collaborative format and contribute to the creation of a child's own world that requires a change in the values of upbringing. Observations show that children transfer experience of co-working with adults in the family circle to the rules of life in the conditions of the children's collective, guided by the significant values of cohabitation, learned at home. Meeting the basic needs of the child in protection and care affect on their social and psychological maturity, forms an appropriate attitude in the child to society. Through indirect support, an adult should develop a preschooler experience of relationships. Focusing on an activity partner motivates the child to form an emotional-personal form of contact and cognitive cooperation. The culture of communication in the family is an indicator of its psychological climate, which is a key factor in shaping a child's ability to live in a social environment. The family is the social environment where a self-sufficient personality is emerging.

Key words: family socialization, parental responsibility, preschool childhood, subjectivity, subject-subject interaction.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 222-235 (pdf)

UDC: 159.922.26:37.018.3-027.553:364.64

Chystiak O.

Language: Ukrainian

Psychological features of interpersonal relationships between pupils, teenagers and parents under foster family homes.

The article reveals the content and structure of the concept of "interpersonal relationships", considers the role of family type homes in the social education of adolescents. The peculiarities of development of interpersonal relations between children of teenage and foster parents in the orphanage of family type in the form of characteristics of the stages of their development. Special attention is paid to the interpersonal perception as a component of a behavioral component. Clarified the nature and role of friendship in interpersonal relationships between caregivers and adolescents. The essence of the notion "culture of interpersonal relations of adults with children" as the pinnacle of development of these relations. It is proved that the effectiveness of the development of the interpersonal relations between children of teenage and foster parents to influence the effectiveness of joint activities. Characterized by signs of such activity.

Key words: parents, educators, students and adolescents, children's home of family type, communication, interpersonal relationships, culture, interpersonal relationships with adult inmates.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 236-248 (pdf)

UDC 159.922.72+159.923]-053.4

Shaumian O.G.

Language: Ukrainian

Formation of the normative-value relationship as a prerequisite for forming a successful positive personality of a child.

Relevant at all times is the care for the harmonious development of a child and upbringing of a successful positive personality. Despite the breadth of view demonstrated by domestic and foreign psychologists-practitioners on the formation of a child’s personality, it’s advisable to analyze it in the light of society globalization and development of information technologies.

The future personality should be helped in shaping the internal state of inclusion into the world, in revealing its creative potential, and in particular creativity. It’s necessary to develop a child’s awareness of the world as a whole, based on the knowledge of the general interconnection of things and phenomena of the Universe, which affect a person’s worldview. Today it’s important to form the need for creative transformation of the world and its improvement, which involves the development of such personality traits as empathy, altruism, and love through the enrichment of a child’s role repertoire.

A modern person should strive to develop a positive normative-value attitude and confront, if he finds them, manifestations of injustice to others. It’s necessary to cultivate in it feelings and aspirations, to encourage a desire to obey the laws of society. The study of the formation of the normative-value relationship as a prerequisite for the formation of a successful positive personality of a child is a promising direction of activity for a practical psychologist.

Key words: child, personality culture, future personality, integrity, creative thinking, creativity, personal development.

Aktual_probl_psihol, 2020 4 (16) : 249-261 (pdf)